Health Insurance FAQs: Common Questions Answered

What is Health Insurance?

Health insurance is a type of insurance coverage that pays for medical and surgical expenses incurred by the insured. It can reimburse the insured for expenses incurred from illness or injury, or pay the care provider directly. Health insurance can be provided by the government, private companies, or a combination of both.

Why is Health Insurance Important?

Health insurance is crucial for several reasons:

  1. Financial Protection: It helps cover high medical costs, protecting you from significant financial burden.
  2. Access to Healthcare: It ensures you have access to necessary medical services.
  3. Preventive Care: Many insurance plans cover preventive services, which can help detect and treat health issues early.

What Are the Types of Health Insurance?

There are several types of health insurance plans, including:

  1. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO): Requires you to use doctors within the network and get a referral from your primary care physician to see a specialist.
  2. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO): Offers more flexibility in choosing healthcare providers and does not require referrals for specialists.
  3. Exclusive Provider Organization (EPO): A blend of HMO and PPO plans; you must use network providers except in emergencies, but you don’t need referrals.
  4. Point of Service (POS): Combines features of HMO and PPO; requires referrals for specialists but allows out-of-network visits at a higher cost.
  5. High-Deductible Health Plan (HDHP): Often paired with Health Savings Accounts (HSAs), these plans have higher deductibles but lower premiums.

How Do I Choose the Right Health Insurance Plan?

Choosing the right health insurance plan depends on several factors:

  1. Coverage Needs: Assess your medical needs, including regular medications, specialist care, and any ongoing treatments.
  2. Cost: Consider both premiums and out-of-pocket costs like deductibles, copayments, and coinsurance.
  3. Provider Network: Ensure your preferred doctors and hospitals are in-network.
  4. Additional Benefits: Look for additional benefits like mental health services, wellness programs, and maternity care.

What is a Premium?

A premium is the amount you pay for your health insurance every month. This cost is often shared between you and your employer if you have employer-sponsored health insurance.

What is a Deductible?

A deductible is the amount you pay out-of-pocket for healthcare services before your insurance plan starts to pay. For example, if your deductible is $1,000, you will pay the first $1,000 of your medical bills, after which your insurance will cover the remaining costs according to the terms of your policy.

What is Coinsurance?

Coinsurance is your share of the costs of a healthcare service after you’ve paid your deductible. It is usually a percentage of the allowed amount for the service. For example, if your plan’s coinsurance is 20%, you will pay 20% of the cost of the service, and your insurance will pay 80%.

What is a Copayment?

A copayment (or copay) is a fixed amount you pay for a covered healthcare service, usually when you receive the service. For example, you might pay $20 for a doctor’s visit, while your insurance covers the rest.

What is an Out-of-Pocket Maximum?

The out-of-pocket maximum is the most you will pay during a policy period (usually a year) before your health insurance begins to pay 100% for covered essential health benefits. This limit includes deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments, but not premiums.

What is a Network?

A network is a group of doctors, hospitals, and other healthcare providers that have agreed to provide services at discounted rates to the insurance plan’s members. Using in-network providers usually means lower costs for you.

What if I Need a Doctor Outside My Network?

If you see a doctor outside your network, you may have to pay more, or in some cases, all of the cost, depending on your health insurance plan. PPOs and POS plans often provide some coverage for out-of-network care, while HMOs and EPOs generally do not.

How Do I Get Health Insurance?

There are several ways to obtain health insurance:

  1. Employer-Sponsored Plans: Many employers offer health insurance as part of their benefits package.
  2. Marketplace Plans: You can purchase insurance through the Health Insurance Marketplace established by the Affordable Care Act (ACA).
  3. Medicaid and CHIP: Government programs providing coverage for low-income individuals and families.
  4. Medicare: Federal program for individuals aged 65 and older, and some younger individuals with disabilities.
  5. Private Plans: You can buy insurance directly from private health insurance companies.

What is the Health Insurance Marketplace?

The Health Insurance Marketplace is a service available in every state that helps people shop for and enroll in affordable health insurance. The Marketplace is primarily for individuals who do not have health insurance through their employer, Medicaid, Medicare, or another source.

What is the Difference Between Medicaid and Medicare?

Medicaid is a state and federal program that provides health coverage if you have a very low income, while Medicare is a federal program that provides health coverage if you are 65 or older, or under 65 and have a disability, no matter your income.

What Are Essential Health Benefits?

Essential health benefits are a set of 10 categories of services health insurance plans must cover under the Affordable Care Act. These include:

  1. Ambulatory patient services
  2. Emergency services
  3. Hospitalization
  4. Pregnancy, maternity, and newborn care
  5. Mental health and substance use disorder services
  6. Prescription drugs
  7. Rehabilitative and habilitative services and devices
  8. Laboratory services
  9. Preventive and wellness services and chronic disease management
  10. Pediatric services, including oral and vision care

What if I Can’t Afford Health Insurance?

If you cannot afford health insurance, you may be eligible for subsidies or tax credits through the Health Insurance Marketplace to lower your monthly premiums and out-of-pocket costs. Additionally, Medicaid provides free or low-cost health coverage to low-income individuals and families.

What is the Open Enrollment Period?

The Open Enrollment Period is the time of year when you can sign up for health insurance, switch plans, or make changes to your existing plan. For most health insurance plans, this period occurs once a year.

Can I Get Health Insurance Outside of the Open Enrollment Period?

You can get health insurance outside of the Open Enrollment Period if you qualify for a Special Enrollment Period (SEP). SEPs are triggered by certain life events, such as getting married, having a baby, losing other health coverage, or moving.

What is a Health Savings Account (HSA)?

A Health Savings Account (HSA) is a tax-advantaged account that you can use to save for medical expenses. To contribute to an HSA, you must be enrolled in a High-Deductible Health Plan (HDHP). The money you contribute to an HSA is not subject to federal income tax at the time of deposit.

What is the Difference Between an HSA and an FSA?

A Flexible Spending Account (FSA) is similar to an HSA but has different rules. FSAs are typically offered through an employer, and you must use the funds within the plan year or lose them (with some exceptions). Unlike HSAs, FSAs do not require you to have a high-deductible health plan.

What is a Catastrophic Health Plan?

A Catastrophic Health Plan is a type of health insurance designed for young, healthy individuals under 30 or those who qualify for a hardship exemption. These plans have low premiums but very high deductibles and are intended to protect you from very high medical costs.

What Does “In-Network” vs. “Out-of-Network” Mean?

In-network refers to doctors, hospitals, and other healthcare providers that have contracted with your insurance plan to provide services at lower rates. Out-of-network providers have not agreed to these rates, and using them will usually result in higher out-of-pocket costs for you.

What is the Explanation of Benefits (EOB)?

An Explanation of Benefits (EOB) is a statement from your health insurance plan describing what costs it will cover for medical care or products you’ve received. The EOB is not a bill but explains what the insurer will pay and what you owe.

What Should I Do If My Health Insurance Claim is Denied?

If your health insurance claim is denied, you have the right to appeal the decision. Start by understanding the reason for the denial, then gather necessary documentation to support your appeal. You can often resolve issues by contacting your insurance company directly.

How Does Prescription Drug Coverage Work?

Prescription drug coverage varies by plan but generally involves a formulary, which is a list of covered medications. Plans often have tiers of coverage, where generic drugs are the least expensive, and brand-name or specialty drugs are more costly. You may also have to meet a deductible and pay coinsurance or copayments for medications.

What is Prior Authorization?

Prior authorization is a requirement that your healthcare provider obtains approval from your health insurance plan before prescribing a specific medication, treatment, or procedure. This process ensures that the service is medically necessary and covered by your plan.

How Can I Save on Health Insurance Costs?

To save on health insurance costs:

  1. Choose a Higher Deductible: Opt for a higher deductible plan if you are healthy and do not expect many medical expenses.
  2. Use In-Network Providers: Stick to in-network doctors and facilities.
  3. Take Advantage of Preventive Services: Use free preventive services covered by your plan.
  4. Review Your Plan Annually: Make sure your plan still meets your needs and compare it with other available options during open enrollment.

What Are Some Common Health Insurance Terms I Should Know?

Here are some key health insurance terms:

  • Premium: The monthly payment for your health insurance.
  • Deductible: The amount you pay for covered services before your insurance starts to pay.
  • Copayment: A fixed amount you pay for a covered service.
  • Coinsurance: Your share of the costs of a covered healthcare service, usually a percentage.
  • Out-of-pocket Maximum: The most you will pay in a policy period before your insurance pays 100%.
  • Formulary: A list of prescription drugs covered by your health plan.


Understanding health insurance can seem daunting, but having the answers to common questions can help demystify the process. Knowing what your plan covers, how much you’ll pay, and how to make the most of your benefits can lead to better health outcomes and financial security. Take the time to review your options, ask questions, and choose a plan that fits your needs and budget.